The Arabica coffee strains especially delicious in Vietnam are Bourbon, Typica, Mocha (moka) - the oldest coffee strains on earth.
1. Arabica coffee beans: Catimor, Typica, Bourbon, Catuai
The Arabica coffee strains especially delicious in Vietnam are Bourbon, Typica, Mocha (moka) - the oldest coffee strains on earth. But all three strains were difficult to grow because of low yield, susceptibility to pests and so were gradually removed from the coffee fields and gradually replaced by Catimor strain - developed in Portugal in 1959, a hybrid. created of two varieties Caturra and Timor (Timor is a hybrid between robusta and arabica lines). This variety is easy to grow, has high yield, and is resistant to pests. Currently, for Arabica in Vietnam, Catimor is widely grown in most of the major coffee material areas across the country, namely Lam Dong, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Quang Tri, Nghe An and Son La. Three years ago, the "Moka" strain was grown in Cau Dat, Xuan Truong and Da Lat, and this coffee was especially famous for its deliciousness, so it was used by roasters to advertise their roasted products.
a. Typica coffee beans
According to Mr. Vo Khanh, who buys and processes the old coffee varieties in Cau Dat hamlet, Xuan Truong commune, the current Typica production in Cau Dat (district) including 2 communes Xuan Truong and Tram Hanh each year reaches about 2.5 - 3 tons of people. Before 1988, there were only Typica and Bourbon (also called hanging willow) in this area. In the 1990s, other coffee varieties such as Catimor, Catuai (yellow fruit) were introduced to the region, but it was not until 2001, when the price of coffee was extremely low, people started cutting down a series of Typica to grow Catimor. There is no classification when purchasing, Typica is also sold together with Catimor for export so people tighten and replace them with Catimor varieties with a productivity 2-3 times higher than Typica. Catimor has been exported to the world but it is in the form of exported coffee beans and used to mix with other types of coffee. Meanwhile, Typica lost and did not even have a place with the name "Moka Cau Dat".
b. Bourbon coffee beans
The highest value coffee in Vietnam and the quality of taste comparable to the world's best coffee is Arabica Bourbon, Moka coffee, or Moka Dau. Arabica Bourbon (Moka) comes from the port of Mocha, Yemen, famous for a while. Moka was introduced to Bourbon Island (now known as Reunion), a small French island, located in the Indian Ocean, 700 km east of Madagascar and 200 km southwest of Mauritius. This Arabica Bourbon was first introduced to Vietnam in 1875 by the French. The French established a number of coffee plantations to cultivate Moka. After Moka was harvested and processed, it was launched to the market with the trademark "Arabica du Tonkin" for a while, extremely famous for its deliciousness and elegance, which only the upper class and nobility can enjoy. "Arabica du Tonkin" - famous Moka coffee grown in Vietnam is mostly imported to France to serve discerning connoisseurs. The seeds have a slightly sour taste with a smell of wine, a sweet aftertaste. Bourbon is grown in higher places often have floral aroma. Moka Dau has long been grown and grown well in Xuan Tho and Xuan Truong communes ...
Moka Cau Dat is considered the queen of all kinds of coffee thanks to its attractive aroma and its balanced, velvety, smooth taste, attached to its special way. It is a pity that many farmer households, due to the impact of the market economy, do not have enough enthusiasm to conserve the Arabica Bourbon variety so when Catimor varieties are high yielding, easy to grow, bringing many economic benefits. , planted so after cutting down many Moka trees. Currently, despite many efforts to restore this precious coffee variety, Moka is still very rare, and therefore, the price of green coffee is very high.
c. Catuai coffee beans
Catuai is a hybrid product in the 1940s between the Caturra coffee line (named after a Brazilian town), a variant of Bourbon (pure Arabica) and the Mundo Novo coffee line (a cross between two pure Arabica lines) is Bourbon and Typica).
According to some coffee makers after the liberation, Catuai was imported to Vietnam from Cuba in the 1980s with Catimor coffee grown in Phu Quy, Nghe An, and later introduced varieties to develop in Quang Tri. . Catuai has a good yield, but the resistance to pests, frosts, etc. is very poor, possibly due to the genetic characteristics from Caturra which is famous for its poor antibodies. For this reason, Catuai was not further developed, leaving only a few sporadic gardens, but even so, the percentage and Catimor in the garden are very high. People collect and sell together with Catimor.
In Quang Tri, Catuai looks like Catimor but has time to flower and harvest later than Catimor about 2 weeks. Unlike the red Catimor, the ripe Catuai yellow fruit is yellow. Most nuclei have a circular shape like the Catimor nucleus, but the rate of particles appears longer than Catimor. This is probably caused by the fact that Catuai gardens in the area are no longer homogeneous.
2.Robusta coffee beans
The best Robusta coffee of the Central Highlands comes from different gardens in the Central Highlands provinces. For example, Robusta in Dak Lak province has to mention coffee in Buon Ho, Dak Nong province with good coffee grown in Dak Mil, delicious Robusta coffee in Dak Ha in Kon Tum province, Gia Lai province with Chu Se, Lam Dong with Di Linh Although it is also Robusta coffee, each land offers a different flavor, very delicate and superior to other lands. Lower geography in the south and southeast has provinces like Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai ... also contribute a large volume of Robusta coffee, but the taste quality is somewhat inferior to Western Robusta coffee. Originally a little.
Robusta coffee beans have 2 lines:
a. Robusta Se coffee beans: Pure root does not crossbreed, giving a richer quality than the high yield line. Small seeds, but firm and heavy.
b. Robusta Cao San Coffee Beans: This strain was selected for asexual propagation by the Central Highlands agroforestry institute by young shoots in the coffee tree replanting program, including some main varieties: TR4; TR5; TR6; TR7; TR8; TR9; TR11; TR12; TR13. High yielding yield and high yield, good pest resistance but not as good as the Robusta Se line, used to extract chlorogenic acid (CGA) - a form of antioxidant that helps protect nerves and is Ingredients that prevent hypoxia. Or make instant coffee ...
3. Cherry coffee beans
Cherry, also known as jackfruit coffee, consists of two main varieties, Liberica and Exelsa
The yield of jackfruit coffee is not large, the kernel is large and slender. The tree is usually planted as a monoculture or as a windbreak for the coffee plots, usually planted in rows every 5-7m per tree.
Due to its drought tolerance and high resistance to pests, jackfruit coffee is now used as the rootstock for other types of coffee that are very popular with gardeners.
Jackfruit coffee beans are often mixed with Robusta coffee, roasted coffee tea to create another flavor.